OpenSSL ‘heartbleed’ bug live blog

heartbleedA bug has been identified in OpenSSL, all details can be found at heartbleed.com. The bug has been assigned CVE-2014-0160. OpenSSL versions 1.0.1 – 1.0.1f are vulnerable. We advise to upgrade OpenSSL to version 1.0.1g or higher

Test if you are vulnerable

You can test if you are vulnerable by requesting a heartbeat response with a large response. If the server replies your SSL service is probably vulnerable. You can use any of the tests below:

This vulnerability only applies to OpenSSL versions 1.0.1-1.0.1f. Other SSL libraries, such as PolarSSL, are not vulnerable. OpenVPN-NL, which is depending on PolarSSL, is not affected.

Advice

We advise to perform the following steps for every vulnerable SSL service

  • Upgrade the OpenSSL version to 1.0.1g
  • Request revocation of the current SSL certificate
  • Regenerate your private key
  • Request and replace the SSL certificate

Indicator of Compromise

It is possible to detect successful exploitation of this vulnerability by inspecting the network traffic. We have developed 2 sets of Snort signatures to detect succesful exploitation of the ‘heartbleed bug’. The first set has a higher detection rate but also quite a few false positives:

alert tcp any [!80,​!445] -> any [!80,​!445] (msg:"FOX-SRT - Suspicious - Possible SSLv3 Large Heartbeat Response"; flow:established; ssl_version:sslv3; content:"|18 03 00|"; depth:3; byte_test:2,​>,​200,​3; byte_test:2,​<,​17000,​3; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 600; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001126; rev:8;)
alert tcp any [!80,​!445] -> any [!80,​!445] (msg:"FOX-SRT - Suspicious - Possible TLSv1 Large Heartbeat Response"; flow:established; ssl_version:tls1.0; content:"|18 03 01|"; depth:3; byte_test:2,​>,​200,​3; byte_test:2,​<,​17000,​3; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 600; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001127; rev:8;)
alert tcp any [!80,​!445] -> any [!80,​!445] (msg:"FOX-SRT - Suspicious - Possible TLSv1.1 Large Heartbeat Response"; flow:established; ssl_version:tls1.1; content:"|18 03 02|"; depth:3; byte_test:2,​>,​200,​3; byte_test:2,​<,​17000,​3; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 600; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001128; rev:8;)
alert tcp any [!80,​!445] -> any [!80,​!445] (msg:"FOX-SRT - Suspicious - Possible TLSv1.2 Large Heartbeat Response"; flow:established; ssl_version:tls1.2; content:"|18 03 03|"; depth:3; byte_test:2,​>,​200,​3; byte_test:2,​<,​17000,​3; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 600; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001129; rev:8;)

The second set has a lower false positive ratio but might also have a slightly lower detection rate:

alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"FOX-SRT - Flowbit - TLS-SSL Client Hello"; flow:established; dsize:< 500; content:"|16 03|"; depth:2; byte_test:1,​ <=,​ 2,​ 3; byte_test:1,​ !=,​ 2,​ 1; content:"|01|"; offset:5; depth:1; content:"|03|"; offset:9; byte_test:1,​ <=,​ 3,​ 10; byte_test:1,​ !=,​ 2,​ 9; content:"|00 0f 00|"; flowbits:set,​foxsslsession; flowbits:noalert; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 60; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001130; rev:10;)
alert_testing tcp any any -> any any (msg:"FOX-SRT - Suspicious - TLS-SSL Large Heartbeat Response"; flow:established; flowbits:isset,​foxsslsession; content:"|18 03|"; depth: 2; byte_test:1,​ <=,​ 3,​ 2; byte_test:1,​ !=,​ 2,​ 1; byte_test:2,​ >,​ 200,​ 3; byte_test:2,​<,​16409,​3; threshold:type limit,​ track by_src,​ count 1,​ seconds 600; reference:cve,​2014-0160; classtype:bad-unknown; sid: 21001131; rev:6;)

Note: if you want to detect vulnerable SMTP servers that are being exploited via STARTTLS, make sure that you do not have “ignore_tls_data” enabled on your SMTP preprocessor.

Impact

An attacker can retrieve a block of memory of the server up to 64kb. There is no limit on the number of attacks that can be performed. The attacker has no control over the memory region where the block is read from. Sensitive information that can be obtained is:

  • SSL private keys
  • Basic authorization strings (username / password combinations)
  • Source code

This bug affects both sides of the connection. Not only will client certificates not save you from having to update your server certificate, they can be read from the client (along with your username, password etc.) by any server you connect to. DNS poisoning, MitM etc. can be used to direct clients to a malicious server – it seems that this vulnerability can be exploited before the server has to authenticate itself.

According to http://www.openssl.org/news/openssl-1.0.1-notes.html the heartbeat extension was introduced in March 2012 with the release of version 1.0.1 of OpenSSL. This implies the vulnerability has been around for 2 years.

Updates

OpenSSL has provided an updated version (1.0.1g) of OpenSSL at https://www.openssl.org/source/.

Linux distributions are providing updates right now, so check your system for updates. Some Linux distributions have backported the fix to previous versions, ie Debian’s OpenSSL 1.0.1e-2+deb7u5 package has incorporated the fix.

Examples

When running the ssltest.py script against yahoo.com we were presented with this (censored) output. It shows clearly that the ‘heartbleed bug’ has serious consequences.

heartbleed example