Recently, Roger Dingledine described a sudden increase in Tor users on the Tor Talk mailinglist. To date there has been a large amount of speculation as to why this may have happened. A large number of articles seem to suggest this to be the result of the recent global espionage events, the evasion of the Pirate Bay blockades using the PirateBrowser or the Syrian civil war.
At the time of writing, the amount of Tor clients actually appears to have more than quintupled already. The graph shows no signs of a decline in growth, as seen below:
An alternative recurring explanation is the increased usage of botnets using Tor, based on the assertion that the increase appears to consist of mostly new users to Tor that apparently are not doing much given the limited impact on Tor exit performance. In recent days, we have indeed found evidence which suggests that a specific and rather unknown botnet is responsible for the majority of the sudden uptick in Tor users. A recent detection name that has been used in relation to this botnet is “Mevade.A”, but older references suggest the name “Sefnit”, which dates back to at least 2009 and also included Tor connectivity. We have found various references that the malware is internally known as SBC to its operators.
Previously, the botnet communicated mainly using HTTP as well as alternative communication methods. More recently and coinciding with the uptick in Tor users, the botnet switched to Tor as its method of communication for its command and control channel. The botnet appears to be massive in size as well as very widespread. Even prior to the switch to Tor, it consisted of tens of thousands of confirmed infections within a limited amount of networks. When these numbers are extrapolated on a per country and global scale, these are definitely in the same ballpark as the Tor user increase.
Thus one important thing to note is that this was an already existing botnet of massive scale, even prior to the conversion to using Tor and .onion as command and control channel.
As pointed out in the Tor weekly news, the version of Tor that is used by the new Tor clients must be 0.2.3.x, due to the fact that they do not use the new Tor handshake method. Based on the code we can confirm that the version of Tor that is used is 0.2.3.25.
The malware uses command and control connectivity via Tor .onion links using HTTP. While some bots continue to operate using the standard HTTP connectivity, some versions of the malware use a peer-to-peer network to communicate (KAD based).
Typically, it is fairly clear what the purpose of malware is, such as banking, clickfraud, ransomware or fake anti-virus malware. In this case however it is a bit more difficult. It is possible that the purpose of this malware network is to load additional malware onto the system and that the infected systems are for sale. We have however no compelling evidence that this is true, so this assumption is merely based on a combination of small hints. It does however originate from a Russian spoken region, and is likely motivated by direct or indirect financial related crime.
This specific version of the malware, which includes the Tor functionality, will install itself in:
%SYSTEM%\config\systemprofile\Local Settings\Application Data\Windows Internet Name System\wins.exe
Additionally, it will install a Tor component in:
A live copy for researchers of the malware can be found at:
hxxp://olivasonny .no-ip .biz /attachments/tc.c1
This location is regularly updated with new versions.
Related md5 hashes:
2eee286587f76a09f34f345fd4e00113 (August 2013) c11c83a7d9e7fa0efaf90cebd49fbd0b (September 2013)
Related md5 hashes from non-Tor version:
4841b5508e43d1797f31b6cdb83956a3 (December 2012) 4773a00879134a9365e127e2989f4844 (January 2013) 9fcddc45ae35d5cdc06e8666d249d250 (February 2013) b939f6ef3bd292996f97aa5786757870 (March 2013) 47c8b85a4c82ed71487deab68de196ba (March 2013) 3e6eb9f8d81161db44b4c4b17763c46a (April 2013) a0343241bf53576d18e9c1329e6a5e7e (April 2013)
Thank you to our partners for the help in investigating this threat.
ProtACT Team & InTELL Team
74 thoughts on “Large botnet cause of recent Tor network overload”
Nice blog Guys! Greets Danny
What disassembly viewer is that? Looks like vim plugin, where can I get it?
Looks like IDA to me.
Actually just IDA with a customized color scheme
If the botnet authors are reading this: dudes, please run some relays! thanks.
if the botnet authors are reading this: dudes, please run some relays too! thanks
The link you posted, is that the entire thing or is it a downloader? If it’s the former I’d imagine it’s quite a large binary for a trojan. What’s the memory usage like?
A large part of it is actually the built in Tor client. Not sure why I would be interested in memory usage though, so I really have no idea 🙂
These attacks are limited to Windows platforms.
The only viable end to such vulnerabilities is to wean business off of it’s addiction to all things Microsoft and replace these critical systems with Linux and Mac OS X. These alternatives have been proven to be steadfastly resistant to such wholesale attacks.
Hope that the dark net runs smooth again. Makes no fun to shop at Silk Road Anonymous Marketplace with a slow connection.
Why over the 50% of the users are coming from 7 countries, USA (in number one slot with 15.13 %), Germany, Italy, France,Spain, Brazil and United Kingdom? Any insights?
-percentages gathered from the article linked by BBC:
To answer this question it requires full insight into all the infection vectors. However it is safe to say that the infection vector is something which affects “western” countries more than others. But as those 7 countries are the largest western countries in terms of population, it is safe to assume the other western countries are equally affected.
As China actively blocks Tor it is seemingly unaffected by the Tor variant (reality is it simply cannot communicate over Tor). Some other countries are for some reason not impacted so much by this, one surprising one is South Korea, culturally similar to Japan, but typically also affected by numerous botnets. There are a couple of other interesting countries where seemingly the amount of connecting clients is very low.
tor bridges can be used to bypass restrictions in china, ext