Author: Willem Zeeman
“Office 365 again?”. At the Forensics and Incident Response department of Fox-IT, this is heard often. Office 365 breach investigations are common at our department.
You’ll find that this blog post actually doesn’t make a case for Office 365 being inherently insecure – rather, it discusses some of the predictability of Office 365 that adversaries might use and mistakes that organisations make. The final part of this blog describes a quick check for signs if you already are a victim of an Office 365 compromise. Extended details about securing and investigating your Office 365 environment will be covered in blogs to come.
Office 365 is predictable
A lot of adversaries seem to have a financial motivation for trying to breach an email environment. A typical adversary doesn’t want to waste too much time searching for the right way to access the email system, despite the fact that it is often enough to browse to an address like https://webmail.companyname.tld. But why would the adversary risk encountering a custom or extra-secure web page? Why would the adversary accept the uncertainty of having to deal with a certain email protocol in use by the particular organisation? Why guess the URL? It’s much easier to use the “Cloud approach”.
In this approach, an adversary first collects a list of valid credentials (email address and password), most frequently gathered with the help of a successful phishing campaign. When credentials have been captured, the adversary simply browses to https://office.com and tries them. If there’s no second type of authentication required, they are in. That’s it. The adversary is now in paradise, because after gaining access, they also know what to expect here. Not some fancy or out-dated email system, but an Office 365 environment just like all the others. There’s a good chance that the compromised account owns an Exchange Online mailbox too.
In predictable environments, like Office 365, it’s also much easier to automate your process of evil intentions. The adversary may create a script or use some tooling, complement it with the gathered list of credentials and sit back. Of course, an adversary may also target a specific on-premises system configuration, but seen from an opportunistic point of view, why would they? According to Microsoft, more than 180 million people are using their popular cloud-based solution. It’s far more effective to try another set of credentials and enter another predictable environment than it is to spend time in figuring out where information might be available, and how the environment is configured.
Office 365 is… secure?
Well, yes, Office 365 is a secure platform. The truth is that it has a lot more easy-to-deploy security capabilities than the most common on-premises solutions. The issue here is that organisations seem to not always realise what they could and should do to secure Office 365.
Best practices for securing your Office 365 environment will be covered in a later blog, but here’s a sneak preview: More than 90% of the Office 365 breaches investigated by Fox-IT would not have happened if the organisation would have had multi-factor authentication in place. No, implementation doesn’t need to be a hassle. Yes, it’s a free to use option. Other security measures like receiving automatic alerts on suspicious activity detected by built-in Office 365 processes are free as well, but often neglected.
Simple preventive solutions like these are not even commonly available in on-premises-situation environments. It almost seems that many companies assume that they can get perfect security right out of the box, rather than configuring the platform to their needs. This may be the reason for organisations to do not even bother configuring Office 365 in a more secure way. That’s a pity, especially when securing your environment is often just a few cloud-clicks away. Office 365 may not be less secure than an on-premises solution, but it might be more prone to being compromised though. Thanks to the lack of involved expertise, and thanks to adversaries who know how to take advantage of this. Microsoft already offers multi-factor authentication to reduce the impact of attacks like phishing. This is great news, because we know from experience that most of the compromises that we see could have been prevented if those companies had used MFA. However, compelling more organisations to adopt it remains an ongoing challenge, and how to drive increased adoption of MFA remains an open question.
A lot of organisations are already compromised. Are you?
At our department we often see that it may take months(!) for an organisation to realise that they have been compromised. In Office 365 breaches, the adversary is often detected due to an action that causes so much noise that it’s no longer possible for the adversary to hide. When the adversary thinks it’s no longer beneficial to persist, the next step is to try to get foothold into another organisation. In our investigations, we see that when this happens, the adversary has already tried reaching a financial goal. This financial goal is often achieved by successfully committing a payment related fraud in which they use an employee’s internal email account to mislead someone. Eventually, to advance into another organisation, a phishing email is sent by the adversary to a large part of the organisation’s address list. In the end, somebody will likely take the bait and leave their credentials on a malevolent and adversary-controlled website. If a victim does, the story starts over again, at the other organisation. For the adversary, it’s just a matter of repeating the steps.
The step to gain foothold in another organisation is also the moment that a lot of (phishing) email messages are flowing out of the organisation. Thanks to Office 365 intelligence, these are automatically blocked if the number of messages surpasses a given limit based on the user’s normal email behaviour. This is commonly the moment where the victim gets in touch with their system administrator, asking why they can’t send any email anymore. Ideally, the system administrator will quickly notice the email messages containing malicious content and report the incident to the security team.
For now, let’s assume you do not have the basic precautions set up, and you want to know if somebody is lurking in your Office 365 environment. You could hire experts to forensically scrutinize your environment, and that would be a correct answer. There actually is a relatively easy way to check if Microsoft’s security intelligence already detected some bad stuff. In this blog we will zoom in on one of these methods. Please keep in mind that a full discussion of these range of the available methods is beyond the scope of this blog post. This blog post describes the method that from our perspective gives quick insights in (afterwards) checking for signs of a breach. The not-so-obvious part of this step is that you will find the output in Microsoft Azure, rather than in Office 365. A big part of the Office 365 environment is actually based on Microsoft Azure, and so is its authentication. This is why it’s usually possible to log in at the Azure portal and check for Risk events.
- Go to https://portal.azure.com and sign-in with your Office 365 admin account
- At the left pane, click Azure Active Directory
- Scroll down to the part that says Security and click Risk events
- If there are any risky events, these will be listed here. For example, impossible travels are one of the more interesting events to pay attention to. These may look like this:
This risk event type identifies two sign-ins from the same account, originating from geographically distant locations within a period in which the geographically distance cannot be covered. Other unusual sign-ins are also marked by machine learning algorithms. Impossible travel is usually a good indicator that an adversary was able to successfully sign in. However, false positives may occur when a user is traveling using a new device or using a VPN.
Apart from the impossible travel registrations, Azure also has a lot of other automated checks which might be listed in the Risk events section. If you have any doubts about these, or if a compromise seems likely: please get in contact with your security team as fast as possible. If your security team needs help in the investigation or mitigation, contact the FoxCERT team. FoxCERT is available 24/7 by phone on +31 (0)800 FOXCERT (+31 (0)800-3692378).
 Disregarding more complex federated setups, and assuming the licensing model permits.
 The risky sign-ins reports are available to users in the following roles: Security Administrator, Global Administrator, Security Reader. Source: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/reports-monitoring/concept-risky-sign-ins